Associated With Discontinuation of Treatment: Twenty percent (1,199/6,145) of patients treated with Paroxetine Tablets in worldwide clinical trials in major depressive disorder and 16.1% (84/522), 11.8% (64/542), 9.4% (44/469) and 10.7% (79/735) of patients treated with Paroxetine Tablets in worldwide trials in social anxiety disorder, OCD, panic disorder and GAD, respectively, discontinued treatment due to an adverse event. The most common events (≥1%) associated with discontinuation and considered to be drug related (i.e., those events associated with dropout at a rate approximately twice or greater for Paroxetine Tablets compared to placebo) included the following:
Commonly Observed Adverse Events: Major Depressive Disorder: The most commonly observed adverse events associated with the use of paroxetine (incidence of 5% or greater and incidence for Paroxetine Tablets at least twice that for placebo, derived from Table 2) were: Asthenia, sweating, nausea, decreased appetite, somnolence, dizziness, insomnia, tremor, nervousness, ejaculatory disturbance, and other male genital disorders.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: The most commonly observed adverse events associated with the use of paroxetine (incidence of 5% or greater and incidence for Paroxetine Tablets at least twice that of placebo, derived from Table 3) were: Nausea, dry mouth, decreased appetite, constipation, dizziness, somnolence, tremor, sweating, impotence, and abnormal ejaculation.
Panic Disorder: The most commonly observed adverse events associated with the use of paroxetine (incidence of 5% or greater and incidence for Paroxetine Tablets at least twice that for placebo, derived from Table 3) were: Asthenia, sweating, decreased appetite, libido decreased, tremor, abnormal ejaculation, female genital disorders, and impotence.
Social Anxiety Disorder: The most commonly observed adverse events associated with the use of paroxetine (incidence of 5% or greater and incidence for Paroxetine Tablets at least twice that for placebo, derived from Table 3) were: Sweating, nausea, dry mouth, constipation, decreased appetite, somnolence, tremor, libido decreased, yawn, abnormal ejaculation, female genital disorders, and impotence.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder: The most commonly observed adverse events associated with the use of paroxetine (incidence of 5% or greater and incidence for Paroxetine Tablets at least twice that for placebo, derived from Table 4) were: Asthenia, infection, constipation, decreased appetite, dry mouth, nausea, libido decreased, somnolence, tremor, sweating, and abnormal ejaculation.
Incidence in Controlled Clinical Trials: The prescriber should be aware that the figures in the tables following cannot be used to predict the incidence of side effects in the course of usual medical practice where patient characteristics and other factors differ from those that prevailed in the clinical trials. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigations involving different treatments, uses, and investigators. The cited figures, however, do provide the prescribing physician with some basis for estimating the relative contribution of drug and nondrug factors to the side effect incidence rate in the populations studied.
Major Depressive Disorder: Table 2 enumerates adverse events that occurred at an incidence of 1% or more among paroxetine-treated patients who participated in short-term (6-week) placebo-controlled trials in which patients were dosed in a range of 20 mg/day to 50 mg/day. Reported adverse events were classified using a standard COSTART-based Dictionary terminology.
- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Panic Disorder, and Social Anxiety Disorder: Table 3 enumerates adverse events that occurred at a frequency of 2% or more among OCD patients on Paroxetine Tablets who participated in placebo-controlled trials of 12-weeks duration in which patients were dosed in a range of 20 mg/day to 60 mg/day or among patients with panic disorder on Paroxetine Tablets who participated in placebo-controlled trials of 10- to 12-weeks duration in which patients were dosed in a range of 10 mg/day to 60 mg/day or among patients with social anxiety disorder on Paroxetine Tablets who participated in placebo-controlled trials of 12-weeks duration in which patients were dosed in a range of 20 mg/day to 50 mg/day.
- Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Table 4 enumerates adverse events that occurred at a frequency of 2% or more among GAD patients on Paroxetine Tablets who participated in placebo-controlled trials of 8-weeks duration in which patients were dosed in a range of 10 mg/day to 50 mg/day.
- Dose Dependency of Adverse Events: A comparison of adverse event rates in a fixed-dose study comparing 10 mg/day, 20 mg/day, 30 mg/day, and 40 mg/day of Paroxetine Tablets with placebo in the treatment of major depressive disorder revealed a clear dose dependency for some of the more common adverse events associated with use of Paroxetine Tablets, as shown in Table 5:
In a fixed-dose study comparing placebo and 20 mg, 40 mg, and 60 mg of Paroxetine Tablets in the treatment of OCD, there was no clear relationship between adverse events and the dose of Paroxetine Tablets to which patients were assigned. No new adverse events were observed in the group treated with 60 mg of Paroxetine Tablets compared to any of the other treatment groups.
In a fixed-dose study comparing placebo and 10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg of Paroxetine Tablets in the treatment of panic disorder, there was no clear relationship between adverse events and the dose of Paroxetine Tablets to which patients were assigned, except for asthenia, dry mouth, anxiety, libido decreased, tremor, and abnormal ejaculation. In flexible-dose studies, no new adverse events were observed in patients receiving 60 mg of Paroxetine Tablets compared to any of the other treatment groups.
In a fixed-dose study comparing placebo and 20 mg, 40 mg, and 60 mg of Paroxetine Tablets in the treatment of social anxiety disorder, for most of the adverse events, there was no clear relationship between adverse events and the dose of Paroxetine Tablets to which patients were assigned.
In a fixed-dose study comparing placebo and 20 mg and 40 mg of Paroxetine Tablets in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, for most of the adverse events, there was no clear relationship between adverse events and the dose of Paroxetine Tablets to which patients were assigned, except for the following adverse events: Asthenia, constipation, and abnormal ejaculation.
- Adaptation to Certain Adverse Events: Over a 4- to 6-week period, there was evidence of adaptation to some adverse events with continued therapy (e.g., nausea and dizziness), but less to other effects (e.g., dry mouth, somnolence, and asthenia).
- Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction With SSRIs: Although changes in sexual desire, sexual performance, and sexual satisfaction often occur as manifestations of a psychiatric disorder, they may also be a consequence of pharmacologic treatment. In particular, some evidence suggests that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can cause such untoward sexual experiences.
Reliable estimates of the incidence and severity of untoward experiences involving sexual desire, performance, and satisfaction are difficult to obtain, however, in part because patients and physicians may be reluctant to discuss them. Accordingly, estimates of the incidence of untoward sexual experience and performance cited in product labeling, are likely to underestimate their actual incidence.
In placebo-controlled clinical trials involving more than 3,200 patients, the ranges for the reported incidence of sexual side effects in males and females with major depressive disorder, OCD, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder and GAD are displayed in Table 6.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies examining sexual dysfunction with paroxetine treatment.
Paroxetine treatment has been associated with several cases of priapism. In those cases with a known outcome, patients recovered without sequelae.
While it is difficult to know the precise risk of sexual dysfunction associated with the use of SSRIs, physicians should routinely inquire about such possible side effects.
- Weight and Vital Sign Changes: Significant weight loss may be an undesirable result of treatment with Paroxetine Tablets for some patients but, on average, patients in controlled trials had minimal (about 1 pound) weight loss versus smaller changes on placebo and active control. No significant changes in vital signs (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse and temperature) were observed in patients treated with Paroxetine Tablets in controlled clinical trials.
- ECG Changes: In an analysis of ECGs obtained in 682 patients treated with Paroxetine Tablets and 415 patients treated with placebo in controlled clinical trials, no clinically significant changes were seen in the ECGs of either group.
- Liver Function Tests: In placebo-controlled clinical trials, patients treated with Paroxetine Tablets exhibited abnormal values on liver function tests at no greater rate than that seen in placebo-treated patients. In particular, the Paroxetine Tablets-versus-placebo comparisons for alkaline phosphatase, SGOT, SGPT, and bilirubin revealed no differences in the percentage of patients with marked abnormalities.
- Hallucinations: In pooled clinical trials of immediate-release paroxetine hydrochloride, hallucinations were observed in 22 of 9089 patients receiving drug and 4 of 3187 patients receiving placebo.
- Other Events Observed During the Premarketing Evaluation of Paroxetine Tablets: During its premarketing assessment in major depressive disorder, multiple doses of Paroxetine Tablets were administered to 6,145 patients in phase 2 and 3 studies. The conditions and duration of exposure to Paroxetine Tablets varied greatly and included (in overlapping categories) open and double-blind studies, uncontrolled and controlled studies, inpatient and outpatient studies, and fixed-dose, and titration studies. During premarketing clinical trials in OCD, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder and generalized anxiety disorder 542, 469, 522 and 735 patients, respectively, received multiple doses of Paroxetine Tablets. Untoward events associated with this exposure were recorded by clinical investigators using terminology of their own choosing. Consequently, it is not possible to provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of individuals experiencing adverse events without first grouping similar types of untoward events into a smaller number of standardized event categories.
In the tabulations that follow, reported adverse events were classified using a standard COSTART-based Dictionary terminology. The frequencies presented, therefore, represent the proportion of the 9,089 patients exposed to multiple doses of Paroxetine Tablets who experienced an event of the type cited on at least 1 occasion while receiving Paroxetine Tablets. All reported events are included except those already listed in Tables 2 to 5, those reported in terms so general as to be uninformative and those events where a drug cause was remote. It is important to emphasize that although the events reported occurred during treatment with paroxetine, they were not necessarily caused by it.
Events are further categorized by body system and listed in order of decreasing frequency according to the following definitions: Frequent adverse events are those occurring on 1 or more occasions in at least 1/100 patients (only those not already listed in the tabulated results from placebo-controlled trials appear in this listing); infrequent adverse events are those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1,000 patients; rare events are those occurring in fewer than 1/1,000 patients. Events of major clinical importance are also described in the PRECAUTIONS section.
Body as a Whole: Infrequent: Allergic reaction, chills, face edema, malaise, neck pain; rare: Adrenergic syndrome, cellulitis, moniliasis, neck rigidity, pelvic pain, peritonitis, sepsis, ulcer.
Cardiovascular System: Frequent: Hypertension, tachycardia; infrequent: Bradycardia, hematoma, hypotension, migraine, postural hypotension, syncope; rare: Angina pectoris, arrhythmia nodal, atrial fibrillation, bundle branch block, cerebral ischemia, cerebrovascular accident, congestive heart failure, heart block, low cardiac output, myocardial infarct, myocardial ischemia, pallor, phlebitis, pulmonary embolus, supraventricular extrasystoles, thrombophlebitis, thrombosis, varicose vein, vascular headache, ventricular extrasystoles.
Digestive System: Infrequent: Bruxism, colitis, dysphagia, eructation, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gingivitis, glossitis, increased salivation, liver function tests abnormal, rectal hemorrhage, ulcerative stomatitis; rare: Aphthous stomatitis, bloody diarrhea, bulimia, cardiospasm, cholelithiasis, duodenitis, enteritis, esophagitis, fecal impactions, fecal incontinence, gum hemorrhage, hematemesis, hepatitis, ileitis, ileus, intestinal obstruction, jaundice, melena, mouth ulceration, peptic ulcer, salivary gland enlargement, sialadenitis, stomach ulcer, stomatitis, tongue discoloration, tongue edema, tooth caries.
Endocrine System: Rare: Diabetes mellitus, goiter, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroiditis.
Hemic and Lymphatic Systems: Infrequent: Anemia, leukopenia, lymphadenopathy, purpura; rare: Abnormal erythrocytes, basophilia, bleeding time increased, eosinophilia, hypochromic anemia, iron deficiency anemia, leukocytosis, lymphedema, abnormal lymphocytes, lymphocytosis, microcytic anemia, monocytosis, normocytic anemia, thrombocythemia, thrombocytopenia.
Metabolic and Nutritional: Frequent: Weight gain; infrequent: Edema, peripheral edema, SGOT increased, SGPT increased, thirst, weight loss; rare: Alkaline phosphatase increased, bilirubinemia, BUN increased, creatinine phosphokinase increased, dehydration, gamma globulins increased, gout, hypercalcemia, hypercholesteremia, hyperglycemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia, ketosis, lactic dehydrogenase increased, non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased.
Musculoskeletal System: Frequent: Arthralgia; infrequent: Arthritis, arthrosis; rare: Bursitis, myositis, osteoporosis, generalized spasm, tenosynovitis, tetany.
Nervous System: Frequent: Emotional lability, vertigo; infrequent: Abnormal thinking, alcohol abuse, ataxia, dystonia, dyskinesia, euphoria, hallucinations, hostility, hypertonia, hypesthesia, hypokinesia, incoordination, lack of emotion, libido increased, manic reaction, neurosis, paralysis, paranoid reaction; rare: Abnormal gait, akinesia, antisocial reaction, aphasia, choreoathetosis, circumoral paresthesias, convulsion, delirium, delusions, diplopia, drug dependence, dysarthria, extrapyramidal syndrome, fasciculations, grand mal convulsion, hyperalgesia, hysteria, manic-depressive reaction, meningitis, myelitis, neuralgia, neuropathy, nystagmus, peripheral neuritis, psychotic depression, psychosis, reflexes decreased, reflexes increased, stupor, torticollis, trismus, withdrawal syndrome.
Respiratory System: Infrequent: Asthma, bronchitis, dyspnea, epistaxis, hyperventilation, pneumonia, respiratory flu; rare: Emphysema, hemoptysis, hiccups, lung fibrosis, pulmonary edema, sputum increased, stridor, voice alteration.
Skin and Appendages: Frequent: Pruritus; infrequent: Acne, alopecia, contact dermatitis, dry skin, ecchymosis, eczema, herpes simplex, photosensitivity, urticaria; rare: Angioedema, erythema nodosum, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, fungal dermatitis, furunculosis; herpes zoster, hirsutism, maculopapular rash, seborrhea, skin discoloration, skin hypertrophy, skin ulcer, sweating decreased, vesiculobullous rash.
Special Senses: Frequent: Tinnitus; infrequent: Abnormality of accommodation, conjunctivitis, ear pain, eye pain, keratoconjunctivitis, mydriasis, otitis media; rare: Amblyopia, anisocoria, blepharitis, cataract, conjunctival edema, corneal ulcer, deafness, exophthalmos, eye hemorrhage, glaucoma, hyperacusis, night blindness, otitis externa, parosmia, photophobia, ptosis, retinal hemorrhage, taste loss, visual field defect.
Urogenital System: Infrequent: Amenorrhea, breast pain, cystitis, dysuria, hematuria, menorrhagia, nocturia, polyuria, pyuria, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, urinary urgency, vaginitis; rare: Abortion, breast atrophy, breast enlargement, endometrial disorder, epididymitis, female lactation, fibrocystic breast, kidney calculus, kidney pain, leukorrhea, mastitis, metrorrhagia, nephritis, oliguria, salpingitis, urethritis, urinary casts, uterine spasm, urolith, vaginal hemorrhage, vaginal moniliasis.
Postmarketing Reports: Voluntary reports of adverse events in patients taking Paroxetine Tablets that have been received since market introduction and not listed above that may have no causal relationship with the drug include acute pancreatitis, elevated liver function tests (the most severe cases were deaths due to liver necrosis, and grossly elevated transaminases associated with severe liver dysfunction), Guillain-Barré syndrome, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, priapism, syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion, symptoms suggestive of prolactinemia and galactorrhea; extrapyramidal symptoms which have included akathisia, bradykinesia, cogwheel rigidity, dystonia, hypertonia, oculogyric crisis which has been associated with concomitant use of pimozide; tremor and trismus; status epilepticus, acute renal failure, pulmonary hypertension, allergic alveolitis, anaphylaxis, eclampsia, laryngismus, optic neuritis, porphyria, restless legs syndrome (RLS), ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia (including torsade de pointes), thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, events related to impaired hematopoiesis (including aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, bone marrow aplasia, and agranulocytosis), vasculitic syndromes (such as Henoch-Schönlein purpura), and premature birth in pregnant women. There has been a case report of an elevated phenytoin level after 4 weeks of Paroxetine Tablets and phenytoin coadministration. There has been a case report of severe hypotension when Paroxetine Tablets were added to chronic metoprolol treatment.